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生酮飲食好與壞 哪幾種人不該生酮?

「生酮飲食」自2017成為飲食關鍵字,至今愈來愈多人認識。只要上 Facebook 搜尋 Keto For Beginner 群組(https://www.facebook.com/groups/194283057753087/),會見到多個真實個案,單靠低碳高脂的生酮飲食(Keto Diet)減50-100磅不是夢。早在生酮飲食未普及前,日本已有多個醫生提倡低醣、低碳,當中宗田哲男撰有多本著作,以醫生角度及真人個案說明生酮或低醣對健康有什麼好處。不過日本戒醣減肥法達人桐山秀樹因心臟衰竭猝死,令生酮或低醣飲食又惹起非議。究竟生酮飲食是不是挽回健康的靈丹妙藥?哪種人不適合嘗試生酮或低醣飲食?

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生酮與低醣/低碳相同嗎?與一般飲食有什麼不同?

很多人以為生酮與低醣是一樣,其實營養素攝取比例並不同。生酮飲食的「碳水化合物:蛋白質:脂肪」的比例是 5:25:70(或可微調至 10:25:65),低醣/低碳飲食的碳水化合物:蛋白質:脂肪的比例是 20:30:50 。一般飲食(即是傳統地把穀物放在食物金字塔最底層的飲食)的「碳水化合物:蛋白質:脂肪」的比例是 60:15:25。一般飲食問題並不單在碳水高比例,而是高碳飲食會引致胰島素大量分泌,血糖起伏劇烈,加上無刻意控制的蛋白質攝取,愈吃愈胖愈多病,是可見的後果。

生酮飲食好與壞 哪幾種人不該生酮?

 

生酮飲食好與壞 哪幾種人不該生酮?

糖尿病人應嘗試生酮飲食嗎?

假如家族長輩有患糖尿病,被診斷糖尿病或糖化血色素大於5.7%,空腹胰島素大於5mcU/ml,可嘗試生酮飲食。不過,如果胰臟已失去所有分泌胰島素功能,則萬萬不能嘗試!第2型糖尿病患者可嘗試生酮,但要有醫生監察及協助,以免酮酸中毒而不自知。

 

孕婦或小朋友可以嘗試生酮飲食嗎?

為健康著想,孕婦、幼兒、末期癌症患者、嚴重肝病者、腎臟病患者、酗酒者都不適合自己嘗試生酮,一定要有了解生酮飲食的營養師或醫生督導,才可嘗試。一般人士如對生酮飲食未有足夠了解及信心,一下子由60%碳水化合物吸收,急降至5%,必定很難習慣,很易因為過於不適而放棄。建議先由低醣/低碳飲食(20%碳水化合物)開始,用兩三星期讓身體及胃口適應了,再降至生酮的5-10%比例。

 

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Fats to fear 😱 VS 🥊 Fats to love ❤️😍 . Nature doesn't make unhealthy fats, humans do. 👊🏼 — What makes a GOOD fat ➡️ Chemical stability, minimal processing, the presence of beneficial compounds other than fat. 👌 — ✅ Good fat examples: extra-virgin olive oil, avocado oil, avocados, the fat in fatty fish (wild salmon, sardines, mackerel), grass-fed beef, omega-3 or pasture raised eggs, coconut oil, MCT oil. — What makes a BAD fat ➡️ Chemical instability, trans fats, skewed omega-6 to omega-3 ratios, heat and chemical extraction, refining, bleaching, deodorization. 🧐 — ❌ Bad fat examples: canola oil, grapeseed oil, corn oil, soy oil, "vegetable oil," sunflower oil, safflower oil, grapeseed oil, commercial salad dressings. — These fats are all highly processed 🙅‍♀️🙅‍♂️ and all contain significant levels of trans fats (up to 5%). If you'd like a back-up source, here's an article 📖 written by Harvard professor of nutrition, Dr. Guy Crosby: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2015/04/13/ask-the-expert-concerns-about-canola-oil/. . In regards to canola oil, from the article, "canola oil does contain very low levels of trans-fat, as do all oils that have been deodorized. 🥃 Deodorization is the final step in refining ALL vegetable oils." Trans fat consumption is linked to early death and worse memory function. 🤯 — 👉🏼 There’s also the issue of dose. The dose makes the poison. If you are consuming micro quantities, you are fine. But unfortunately when it comes to cooking and packaged foods, the quantities in question are macro, not micro. 📶⛰ — . Follow 👉👉 @usweightloss For more informative and plain awesome keto posts! ❤️ ☺️ . . Thanks! @maxlugavere #repost . . #keto #ketogenic #ketodiet #avocadooil #ketogenicdiet #ketofam #ketolifestyle #hflcfood #ketoweightloss #ketofood #lchfbrasil #ketorecipes #ketoaf #ketofish #ketofriendly #hflc #ketomeals #ketogeniclife #ketogenicliving #lchfdiet #ketocooking #ketooils #ketogenicfood #ketodinner #hflcdiet #healthyfats #Healthyfat #ketofats

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生酮飲食是否要吃很多油?我仍是有點怕。

生酮飲食定義的「吃油」,並不是將油像飲品的喝下去,也不等於每餐的碟都有60%是肥肉才合格。首先,生酮飲食要攝取的油脂,並不是什麼油都可以,最好的四大好油是無水奶油(自製酥油)、椰子油、橄欖油、苦茶油,另外,天然冷壓的食油如亞麻籽油、紫蘇油、芝麻油、杏仁油都可以。但是最常見又便宜的粟米油、芥花籽油、大豆油並不適合生酮飲食(詳情:https://www.dietdoctor.com/low-carb/vegetable-oils)。

生酮飲食要求的70%脂肪,佔TDEE(每日總熱量消耗)的70%。以TDEE=1400Kcal為例,每天可攝取最多 108g 的脂肪。但是吃雞腿時,雞腿的肉及皮都有脂肪(千萬別以為只去磅雞皮重量就可以)。如果是在家用牛油煎,煮食用的油又要計算,這樣一道煎雞腿就已經佔去全天攝取量一半有多,未必是你想像中那麼難消化呢。

 

部分資料參考:《高醣、低醣、生酮,怎麼吃才適合我?陳俊旭的終極實踐》自然醫學博士陳俊旭著